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The Tamale Urban Sanitation and Waste Management Programme (TUSWP) was implemented by CLIP in partnership with WASTE (advisers on Urban Environment and Development) based in the Netherland and funded by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs DGIS from 2011 – 2016. The programme contributed to increasing equity and access to sustainable, equitable and affordable WASH services and turning waste in to prosperity through the ISWM and the Diamond approach. This we do by empowering people to improve their own environment and livelihood by building sustainable sanitation and waste (liquid and solid) systems.

The TUSWP is a consortium of stakeholders/ organization working on improving activities along the sanitation and waste service/value chain. In the consortium, relationships and roles of partners are complementary and clearly defined. It consists of the private sector, the government, the Financial Institution, and CSOs relating interdependently to provide business services to households within the sanitation service/value chain.



The TUSWP have adopted the ISWM as its main strategy in working to improve on sanitation and waste service delivery. Sanitation and Waste intervention can only be sustainable if systems are created to continue function to provide services and products in the society.

The ISWM helps us understand the WHO, HOW and WHAT of waste management and change. The model recognizes three important dimensions:  

1. WHO are the stakeholders that are currently present? And who are the key stakeholders that need to be engaged? - Multiple stakeholders working together
2. HOW are the service- and value chains of the waste management system currently working? And how could these be strengthened? - Building a stable service and value chain in waste management

3. WHAT is the current status of the most important enabling aspects: technical, environmental, health, financial, economic, socio-cultural, institutional, legal and political aspects? And how can these be enhanced? - Enabling aspects that ensure sustainability


We work on understanding each of these dimensions and how they relate to each other to identify solutions, and to improve the sustainability of the waste management system.



The Diamond model is a multi-stakeholder approach developed by WASTE (a partner in the Netherlands) to build a local waste management system that can reach scale.

WASTE focuses on connecting the following four key actors in the local waste management market that are essential for scaling of results:

  • Customers (demand-side): Through marketing in waste management, customers have developed a demand for improved services and products in waste management. For example demand for a safe toilet, recycled plastic products or waste collection services.

  • Businesses (supply-side): Local entrepreneurs (SMEs) are trained to meet their customers’ demand. They are incentivised to offer cost-effective and good quality services and products. This includes entrepreneurs who construct safe toilets, collect and process plastic waste and private faecal sludge collectors.

  • Financiers: Financiers, such as Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs) and impact investors, see market opportunities in financing both customers and businesses. Consequently, they develop and promote credit products for customers and businesses.

  • Government: The government has the responsibility to develop and reinforce laws and regulations in waste management standards and stimulates market growth through leadership in awareness creation and proactive engagement in Public Private

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